Key results and actors
- The Talanoa Dialogue, a global advisory process, was launched with the aim of improving the excessively low reduction targets announced by countries before the Paris COP. This dialogue also includes non-state actors.
- The Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples Platform strengthens the exchange of experience between the indigenous peoples. As indigenous peoples had thus far only been mentioned in the preamble to the Paris Agreement, indigenous representatives at the COP have deemed the new platform a clear success.
- The Adaptation Fund to strengthen the resilience of countries in the Global South will receive further financial.
- The Powering Past Coal Alliance, in which more than 20 countries have committed to phasing out coal by 2030, was founded during this COP. The alliance adds to a large number of other partnerships that were newly formed or further strengthened at this year's Climate Summit.
- The InsuRelience, an insurance mechanism against catastrophes, was initiated with contributions from the industrialised countries (Germany gave € 110 million, Great Britain £ 30 million).
- A Gender Action Plan was set into motion with the intention of strengthening the participation of women in climate policy.
- An expert dialogue on the topic of loss and damage was established. The Warsaw Mechanism, which previously dealt with loss and damage issues, was included in the UNFCCC's budget and thus strengthened.
Some key actors
- The EU was a mixed bag. The Netherlands proposed increasing the EU target of reducing CO2 emissions from 40% to 55%. Pressure from the global anti-coal campaign was strong, but for the time being at least Germany's energy transition is still stuck in lignite. Merkel's appearance seemed like an apology in advance for not reaching the German climate target. In this context, France tried to establish itself as the new leader of the industrialised countries with plans to phase out coal. It is, however, to be feared that Macron will try to sell nuclear power as the "clean energy" needed to solve the climate challenge. Poland is infamous for its heavy reliance on fossil fuels, which make up 90% of the energy supply – coal being the main player. Despite this, the Polish team portrayed itself as more forward thinking in Bonn than could have been expected, perhaps due to the country’s role as host of the next Climate Summit. While the EU was regarded as a climate leader in Paris, it has become clear in Bonn that it urgently needs to step up its targets and act on them in order to continue to fulfil this role.
- The presence of the US states and cities continuing to work on the Paris objectives in clear opposition to Trump was strong. Syria’s accession of the Paris Agreement has made the United States the only country in opposition. With its disastrous climate and foreign policy, the Trump government is more isolated than ever.
- China’s importance in climate policy is steadily increasing, due in part to India’s continuing fixation on coal. Unfortunately, the situation is very different for Chinese energy companies, which account for almost half of all new coal production that is to be connected to the grid worldwide in the next decade.
- The Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) unfortunately failed to make a breakthrough on the topic of loss and damage, despite the recent devastating storms and the fact that Fiji held the presidency of COP23.
The bottom line
Concretisation of the Paris Agreement is progressing, but disillusionment has somewhat replaced the euphoria of Paris. The municipalities and our indigenous partners have presented themselves as essential supporters of national efforts. If the Member States fail to significantly increase their climate commitments, the consequences of climate change, already being felt, will take on even more dramatic ecological, social and economic dimensions.